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25 July 2017

About Asphalt



The history of the use of asphalt began thousands of years BC by the Sumerians and Mesopotamia.

They use bitumen (often called bitumen) as a sealing layer for bathtubs and pools of water in the palaces and temples.

John Metcalf - About Asphalt
John Metcalf
John Loudon Mc Adam - About Asphalt
John Loudon Mc Adam
About Asphalt
Deploying hot mix asphalt in the 18th century
Deploying hot mix asphalt in the 18th century.
Dumptruck (early 19th century) was pouring hot mix.
Dumptruck (early 19th century) was pouring hot mix.
Asphalt Sprayer (early 19th century)
Asphalt Sprayer (early 19th century)
Tandem Roller (stoom) early 19th century
Tandem Roller (stoom) early 19th century

Natural Asphalt
a. Natural asphalt can be distinguished :
  • Asphalt mountain (Rock Asphalt) example: asphalt of Buton island
  • Asphalt lake (Lake Asphalt) example: asphalt of Bermudus Trinidat
b. Based on its purity as follows :
  • Pure and nearly pure (Bermuda Lake Asphalt)
  • Mixed with minerals in Pylau Buton, Asphalt mountain (Rock Asphalt) example: asphalt of Buton island, Trinidat, France and Switzerland
Asphalt artificial

This type made from petroleum processing. Petroleum asphalt with the base material can be distinguished :
  • Asphalt Hard
  • Liquid asphalt
Asphalt Emulsion

Asphalt emulsion is a mixture of bitumen with water and emulsifiers based on electrical discharges that contain bitumen emulsion.

  • Binders, providing a strong bond between the asphalt and aggregate and the asphalt itself and adding stability or provide some sort of cushion between the rocks.
  • Fillers, fill the voids between the grains and pore-bitir existing aggregate of the aggregate itself.
  • Cover the road surface to dust and make a waterproof road surface.

The raw material used in modern asphalt manufacturing is petroleum, which is a naturally occurring liquid bitumen.

Asphalt is a natural constituent of petroleum, and there are crude oils which are almost entirely asphalt.

Oil wells supply the crude petroleum to the oil refineries, where it is separated into its various components or fractions.


1. Distilling the crude

The refining process starts by piping the crude petroleum from a storage tank into a heat exchanger or tube heater where its temperature is rapidly raised for initial distillation
Distilling the crude
2. Cutting back

Asphalt may next be blended or "cut back" with a volatile substance, resulting in a product that is soft and workable at a lower temperature than pure asphalt cement.

3. Emulsifying

To emulsify, the asphalt cement is ground into globules 5 to 10 microns and smaller (one micron is equal to one millionth of a meter)

This is mixed with water.

An emulsifying agent is added, which reduces the tendency of the asphalt and water to separate.

4. Pulverizing

Asphalt may also be pulverized to produce a powdered asphalt.
4. Air Blowing

This process produces a material that softens at a higher temperature than paving asphalts. The asphalt is heated to 500°F (260°C).

Then air is bubbled through it for one to 4.5 hours. When cooled, the asphalt remains liquid.

5. Asphalt Paving Mixture

There are two types of asphalt mixes: hot-mix and cold-mix. 

6. Quality control

The quality of asphalt cement is affected by the inherent properties of the petroleum crude oil from which it was produced.

For engineering and construction purposes, there are three important factors to consider : consistency, also called the viscosity or the degree of fluidity of asphalt at a particular temperature, purity, and safety.
Quality control

Environmental protection laws have developed stringent codes limiting water flows and particulate and smoke emissions from oil refineries and asphalt processing plants.

Not only dust but sulfur dioxides, smoke, and many other emissions must be rigorously controlled.

  • Hot-mix recycling, where reclaimed materials are combined with new materials in a central plant to produce hot-mix paving mixtures
  • Cold-mix recycling, where reclaimed materials are combined with new materials either onsite or at a central plant to produce cold-mix base materials
  • Surface recycling, a process in which the old asphalt surface pavement is heated in place, scraped down or "scarified," remixed, relaid, and rolled.
PPT By : SOSNA SRI RAHAYU - 1510414012





In 1805, modern electrochemistry was invented by Italian chemist Luigi Valentino Brugnatelli.

In 1839, scientists in Britain and Russia had independently devised metal deposition processes similar to Brugnatelli's for the copper electroplating of printing press plates.

In the late 19th century, the plating industry received a big boost with the advent of the development of electric generators in.


The process of applying metal coating on metallic or non metallic surface through electrochemical process.

A process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.


Mass Plating
The parts to be plated are kept in barrels which are tumbling while remaining immersed in the metal solution to be plated.

Rack Platting
The parts to be plated are hung on the racks which are immersed in the metal solution which is to be coated.

Continuous plating
Used to provide uniform and smooth coatings to wires, tubes and stripes. The parts to be coated or plated are moved continuously through plating sequence.

Line plating
A technique in which the parts to be coated are moved in production line.

  • Appearance
  • Protection from corrosion
  • Engineering or mechanical properties
  • Special surface properties
  • Decorative purposes;
  • Protection against atmospheric conditions;
  • Electrical conductivity;
  • Industrial applications (automobile, airplanes, electronics, jewelry, and toys).

  • A strike uses a high current density and a bath with a low ion concentration. The process is slow, so more efficient plating processes are used once the desired strike thickness is obtained.
  • If it is desirable to plate one type of deposit onto a metal to improve corrosion resistance but this metal has inherently poor adhesion to the substrate, a strike can be first deposited that is compatible with both. 
Electrochemical Deposition

Advantages :

  • The thickness and morphology of the nanostructure can be precisely controlled by adjusting the electrochemical parameters;
  • Relatively uniform and compact deposits can be synthesized in template-based structures;
  • Higher deposition rates are obtained;
  • The equipment is inexpensive due to the non-requirements of either a high vacuum or a high reaction temperature. 
Pulse Electroplating (PED)
  • A process involves the swift alternating of the potential or current between two different values resulting in a series of pulses of equal amplitude, duration and polarity, separated by zero current.
  • By changing the pulse amplitude and width, it is possible to change the deposited film's composition and thickness.
Brush Electroplating
  • The brush, typically a stainless steel body wrapped with a cloth material that both holds the plating solution and prevents direct contact with the item being plated, is connected to the positive side of a low voltage direct-current power source, and the item to be plated connected to the negative.
  • The operator dips the brush in plating solution then applies it to the item, moving the brush continually to get an even distribution of the plating material.
Electroless Deposition
  • An electroless deposition process uses only one electrode and no external source of electric current.
  • However, the solution for the electroless process needs to contain a reducing agent so that the electrode.
  • Cleaning processes include solvent cleaning, hot alkaline detergent cleaning, electro-cleaning, and acid treatment etc.
  • The most common industrial test for cleanliness is the waterbreak test, in which the surface is thoroughly rinsed and held vertical.
  • The electroplating process can displace these easily since the solutions are water-based. Surfactants such as soap reduce the sensitivity of the test and must be thoroughly rinsed off.
  • Plating wastewater contains heavy metals, oil and grease and suspended solids at levels that might be considered hazardous to the environment and could pose risks to public health.
  • The high toxicity and corrosiveness of plating waste streams, plating facilities are required to pretreat wastewater prior to discharge in accordance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits as required by the Clean Water Act (CWA).
1. Precipitation and Coagulation

pH is raised from ~3 to 8.5 with the pH controller using caustic while adding a coagulant such as ferric chloride. 

2. Flash Mix

The wastewater with it’s precipitated pin floc is introduced to the flash mix zone where a polymer flocculent is added. This stage maximizes flocculent dispersion throughout the coagulated wastewater.

3. Flocculation

The wastewater is now introduced to the slow mix zone to agglomerate the pin floc into larger rapid settling particles.


Purpose :
Electroplating is an art of protecting metal surface form corrosion and giving it pleasant appearance. 

Principle :
Electrodeposition  and redox reaction

Application :
  • Decorative purposes;
  • Industrial applications; e.t.c.
  • Kerri, Ken. 1986. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. California: California State University.
  • Electroplating-Chemistry LibreTexts.htm
  • Electroplating-Wikipedia.htm
  • Electroplating-Definition, Process &
  • Electroplating.htm
  • Treating Plating Wastewater Products Finishing.htm

24 July 2017

Gravimetry Analysis


Gravimetric Methods of Analysis

Gravimetric methods of analysis are based on the measurement of mass. There are three types of gravimetric methods :
  • Precipitation methods : in this method the analyte is converted to a sparingly soluble precipitate. This precipitate is then filtered, washed free of impurities, and converted to a product of known composition by suitable heat treatment, and the product is weighed.
  • Volatilization methods : in this the analyte or its decomposition products are volatilized at a suitable temperature. The volatile product is then collected and weighed, or, alternatively, the mass of the product is determined indirectly from the loss in mass of the sample.
  • Electrolysis methods : Electrolysis method is done by reducing the dissolved metal ions into metal precipitate.Metal ions are in the form of cations when fed with certain large listrikndengan flow in a certain time there will be a reduction reaction to the metal oxidation numbers 0. Electrolysis can be applied to samples suspected to contain levels of dissolved metals is quite large as wastewater
Properties of Precipitates and Precipitating Reagents

A gravimetric precipitating agent should react specifically, and selectively with the analyte. The ideal precipitating reagent would react with the analyte to give a product that is :
  1. Readily filtered and washed free of contaminants
  2. Of sufficiently low solubility so that no significant loss of the solid occurs during filtration and washing
  3. Unreactive with constituents of the atmosphere
  4. Of known composition after it is dried or, if necessary, ignited
Particle Size and Filterability of Precipitates

Precipitates made up of large particles are generally desirable in gravimetric work because large particles are easy to filter and wash free of impurities.

In addition, such precipitates are usually purer than are precipitates made up of fine particles.

What Factors Determine Particle Size ?

The particle size of solids formed by precipitation varies enormously. At one extreme are colloidal suspension, whose tiny particles are invisible to the naked eye (10-7 to 10-4 cm in diameter).

Colloidal particles show no tendency to settle from solution, nor are they easily filtered. At the other extreme are particles with dimensions on the order of tenths of millimeter or greater.

The temporary dispersion of such particles in the liquid phase is called a crystalline suspension. The particles of a crystalline suspension tend to settle spontaneously and are readily filtered.

The particle size of a precipitate is influenced by experimental variables as precipitate solubility, temperature, reactant concentrations, and the rate at which reactants are mixed. The particle size is related to a single property of the system called its relative supersaturation, where

relative supersaturation = (Q – S)/S

In this equation, Q is the concentration of the solute at any instant and S is its equilibrium solubility.

When (Q – S)/ S is large, the precipitate tends to be colloidal.
When (Q – S) / S is small, a crystalline solid is more likely.

How do Precipitates Form ?

Precipitates form in two ways, by nucleation and by particle growth. The particle size of a freshly formed precipitate is determined by which way is faster.

In nucleation, a few ions, atoms, or molecules (perhaps as few as four or five) come together to form a stable solid.

Often, these nuclei form on the surface of suspended solid contaminants, such as dust particles.

Further precipitation then involves a competition between additional nucleation and growth on existing nuclei (particle growth).

If nucleation predominates, a precipitate containing a large number of small particles results; if growth predominates, a smaller number of larger particles is produced.

Peptization of Colloids

Peptization refers to the process by which a coagulated colloid reverts to its original dispersed state.

When a coagulated colloid is washed, some of the electrolyte responsible for its coagulation is leached from the internal liquid in contact with the solid particles.

Removal of this electrolyte has the effect of increasing the volume of the counter-ion layer.

The repulsive forces responsible for the original colloidal state are then reestablished, and particles detach themselves from the coagulated mass.

The washings become cloudy as the freshly dispersed particles pass through the filter.

Crystalline Precipitates

Crystalline precipitates are generally more easily filtered and purified than coagulated colloids.

In addition, the size of individual crystalline particles, and thus their filterability, can be controlled to a degree.

The particle size of crystalline solids can often be improved significantly by minimizing Q, maximizing S, or both in Equation.

Minimization of Q is generally accomplished by using dilute solution and adding the precipitating from hot solution or by adjusting the pH of the precipitation medium.

Digestion of crystalline precipitates (without stirring) for some time after formation frequently yields a purer, more filterable product.

The improvement  in filterability results from the dissolution and recrystallization.

Minimizing Adsorbed Impurities on Colloids

The purity of many coagulated colloids is improved by digestion.

During this process, water is expelled from the solid to give a denser mass that has a smaller specific surface area for adsorption.

Washing a coagulate colloid with a solution containing a volatile electrolyte may also be helpful because any nonvolatile electrolyte added earlier to cause coagulation is displace by the volatile species.

Washing generally does not remove much of the primarily adsorbed ions because the attraction between these ions and the surface of the solid is too strong.

Exchange occurs, however between existing counter ions and ions in the wash liquid.


A drastic but effective way to minimize the effects of adsorption is reprecipitation, or double precipitation.

Here, the filtered solid is redissolved and reprecipitated.

The first precipitate ordinarily carries down only a fraction of the contaminant present in the original solvent.

Thus, the solution containing the redissolved precipitate has a significantly lower contaminant concentration than the original, and even less adsorption occurs during the second precipitation.

Reprecipitation adds substantially to the time required for an analysis.

Determination of Calcium in the limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃).
Gravimetry Analysis
When drops of HCLwill be splashing/foaming.
Easily soluble primarily in water containing CO2, causing holes.

Procedures are :
-  CaCO₃ is weighed that has been refined as 0.2000 gr
-  Added diluted HCl to dissolve the samples

Reaction : CaCO₃ + HCl     CaCl₂ + CO₂ + H₂O (Brown)
  • The water is heated in the temperature of 700 – 800 C (bubble)
  • Added Ammonium Oxalate as forming the precipitate
  • Ca is precipitate (white precipitate)
  • Heated about 30 minutes (brown precipitate) it happen This happens because in the solution contained impurity substances bound by NH4 (COOH) 2 were contaminated with an excessive solvent 
Reaction : Ca²⁺ + (NH₄)₂C₂O₄→ CaC₂O₄ + NH₄⁺+

Filter with filter paper washed with distilled water repeatedly until free of chlorine and sulfate (qualitative test), the washing water is tested qualitatively by adding a precipitating reagent AgNO3 and HNO3.

Testing Cl added a solution of AgNO3 and added a solution of HNO3 still contains Cl it indicates that the sediment still contains impurities such as Cl.

These deposits occur due to the reaction of Cl with Ag + ion to form a precipitate AgCl according to the reaction :
Ag+ + Cl- → AgCl

Then the next step is to do the heating and drying in the oven, the precipitate remaining on the filter paper dried in an oven 100-110 derajat Celcius for ± 30 minutes.

Sludge drying to remove water and volatile substances. with the following equation :

CaCO2O4 ↓ ↓ chocolate brown CaO + CO2 (g) + CO (g)

After heated then cooled at eksikator for ± 5 minutes. Eksikator added to dipijarkan for ± 5 minutes. The precipitate weighed

1. Principles
  • Solution reaction between analytes and reagents to give sparingly soluble products.
  • Drying or ignition of precipitates.
  • Weighing
2. Apparatus
  • Flasks, beakers, pipettes, crucibles and filter papers.
  • Oven or furnace and a dessicator.
  • Analytical quality balance.
3. Applications
  • Extensive numbers of inorganic ions are determined with excellent precision and accuracy.
  • Routine assays of metallurgical samples.
  • Relative precision 0.1 to 1%.
  • Good accuracy
4. Disadvantages
  • Careful and time consuming.
  • Scrupulously clean glassware.
  • Very accurate weighing.
  • Coprecipitation.

*PPT By : Putri Wulandari, Poppy Dwita, Shulhan Zalil Aliju, Nadya Rezkyana

What is Argentometry

Precipitation Titration
  • Precipitation formation
  • Precipitation condition and precipitation purity
Methods in Precipitation  titration
  • Mohr method
  • Volhard method
  • Fajans method
Titrations with precipitating agents are useful for determining certain analytes e.g. Cl⁻can be determined when titrated with AgNO₃.

Methods in Precipitation Titration

Detection of end point :
  • Precipitation Type - Mohr’s method
  • Adsorption – Fajan’s method
  • For silver analyses –Volhard method
Sensors – Potentiometric or amperometric

The chemical types are also classified into :
  1. Indicators reacting with titrant forming specific color.   
  2. Adsorption indicators.
Mohr Method
  • Direct titration
  • Basis of endpoint : Formation of a colored secondary precipitate
  • Indicator :  Soluble chromate salt (Na₂CrO₄, K₂CrO₄)
Endpoints for Argentometric Titrations

Precipitation Type - Mohr’s method

Ag₂CrO₄ precipitation in neutral pH solution...

Product is coloured

Colour forms just after AgCl or Ag I  forms.

Small error involved.

Mohr Method
  • Has to be performed at a neutral or weak basic solution of pH 7-9 (or 6-10)
  • In a lower pH (acid solution)
CrO₄²⁻(aq)  + H⁺(aq) → H₂CrO₄
H₂CrO₄ ↔ 2H(aq)  + CrO₄²⁻(aq)
  • In a higher pH (basic solution)
Ag(aq)  + OH(aq) → AgOH(s)

Mohr Method for Cl- determination
  • Relies on Ksp differences for two insoluble silver salts
Ag(aq) + Cl(aq) → AgCl(s) (titration rxn)
2Ag(aq)  + CrO₄²⁻(aq) → Ag₂CrO₄(s) (indicator rxn)
  • AgCl is less soluble than Ag₂CrO₄ so it will precipitate first
  • Ag₂CrO₄ is brick red in color so a color change is observed at the endpoint
Commonly used silver measurement :
  • Mohr  method = Indictor : K2CrO4
  • Volhard method = Indictor : (NH₄) Fe (SO₄)₂
  • Fajans method = Indictor : Adsorption indicator
The problem  should be pay attention to :
  • The consumption of the indictor : 5×10-3 mol/L. If the concentration of the K2CrO4 is too high, the end point is advance, result is low; if the concentration of the K2CrO4 is too low, the end point is delay ,result is high .K2CrO4  exert  titration produce positive error, the measured concentration is low, it need a blank test.
Volhard Method

Used as a procedure for titrating Ag⁺; determination of Cl⁻ requires a back-titration :
  • First, Cl⁻ is precipitated by excess AgNO₃
Ag⁺(aq) + Cl⁻(aq) → AgCl(s)      
  • Excess Ag+ is titrated with KSCN in the presence of Fe³⁺
Ag+(aq) + SCN⁻(aq) → AgSCN(s)
  • When Ag⁺ has been consumed, a red complex forms
Fe³⁺(aq) + SCN⁻(aq) → FeSCN²⁺(aq)

Endpoints for Argentometric Titrations

Chemical method for silver analyses.

Volhard’s method using thiocyanate , CNS⁻, as titrant.

Iron (III) is the indicator as it forms a red complex ion with thiocyanate, CNS⁻,  Fe (CNS)²⁺

The method can be adapted to Chloride analyses.
AgNO₃ is added in  excess.  The AgCl precipitate is often filtered off.  Then the excess Ag+ backtitrated with thiocyanate , CNS-.

Iron (III) acts as the indicator as above.

Endpoints for Argentometric Titrations

Adsorption – Fajan’s method
A red dye attaches to the silver salt, on the surface of the analyte precipitate particle.

This happens only when the silver ion Ag⁺ is in excess, ie just after the equivalence point.

Fajans Titration

Fajans- adsorption indicator
 → Adsorption indicator

One kind is the acid dyes, for example fluorescence yellow and its derivative, they are the organic weak acid, dissociates the indicator anion;

Another is the alkalinity dye, like the gentian violet, Luo Danming 6G and so on, dissociates the indicator positive ion.            

AgCl)Cl⁻ + FI⁻  === AgCl)Ag·FI⁻
            (yellow green)    Pink

Fajans Titration
Uses adsorption indicator
Dichlorofluorescein is green in solution but pink when absorbed on AgCl


(1) By adding protective colloid dextrin to prevent sedimentation AgCl  excessive pool.

(2) Cl⁻ above 0.005 mol/L; when the concentration of the Br⁻,I⁻,SCN⁻ as low as  0.001 mol/L, also can titrate accurately.

(3) Avoid titrate under strong sunlight.

(4) Acid scope is different, see the table.

(5) The adsorption ability of colloidal particles to the indicator is slightly less than the measured ions .Too big the end is early, too small the end is delay.

the adsorption capacity of AgX :  I⁻ > SCN⁻ > Br⁻ > Eosin > Cl⁻ > fluorescence yellow 


→The precipitation titration of mixed ion
In precipitation titration, whether the two ions were able to accurate titration or not,
it depends on the size of the solubility product ratio.

Can titrate respectively
but I⁻ is adsorpted by AgI has errors.

Can not titrate  respectively
can titrate the volume

  • The determination of the chlorine contained in natural water
Mohr and Volhard Method  
  • The determination of Silver contained in silver allo : Volhard method
  • The determination of halogen contained in organic compounds such as food, organochlorine pesticides, used Volhard method.
C₆H₆Cl₆ + 3OH⁻ = C₆H₆Cl₃ + 3Cl⁻ + 3H₂O
  • The determination of sodium chloride 
Contained in MSG : Mohr method, no more than 20% 
glutamate  more than 95% = grade level 
glutamate more than 80% = second level

The Uses of Precipitation Titration
  • Mostly used for neutralization reactions when the salt is occured the preciptation can ve observed we use indicators to see the pH range
  • Ppt titration is used for such reaction when the titration is not recognised by changing the colours. during the reaction a salt is precipitated as the titration is completed.
  • Precipitation titration is an Amperometric titration in which the potential of a suitable indicator electrode is measured during the titration.
  • It is used for determination of chloride by Mohr's Method using Silver nitrate.

17 July 2017

What Is Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis is a method that used to separate purify macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids based on charge.

Principle of electrophoresis :
  • Separation DNA, RNA, and protein caused electrical field.
Scheme of Gel Electrophoresis

Scheme of Gel Electrophoresis
Picture or Scheme of Apparatus
Picture or Scheme of Apparatus
How to Detect separated DNA

By using gel electrophoresis that is separation for mixing material with different charges.

The gel usually use cross linked polymer.

It is usually used a polycrylamide gel, made from different concentrations of acrylamide and substances that allow cross-linking, and the result is some nets of polycramide in different cavity size.

Nucleic Acid Sequencing

Nucleic acid sequencing is methods for determining the order of the nucleotides bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA.

The Sanger DNA sequencing method
  • Uses dideoxy nucleotides to terminate DNA synthesis.
  • DNA synthesis reactions in four separate tubes
  • Radioactive dATP is also included in all the tubes so the
  • DNA products will be radioactive.
  • Yielding a series of DNA fragments whose sizes can be 
    measured by electrophoresis.
  • The last base in each of these fragments is known.
  • Illumina (Solexa) sequencing
  • Roche 454 sequencing
  • Ion torrent: proton/PGM sequencing
  • SOLiD sequencing
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was originally developed in 1983 by the American biochemist Kary Mullis. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993 for his pioneering work.

Principle of Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions copies of a particular DNA sequence

The principle of PCR is a technique or method of multiplication (replication) of enzymatic DNA operates without the use of organisms

Pictures or scheme of apparatus with explanation

Pictures or scheme of apparatus with explanation

PCR process consists of three stages :
  • Denaturation :
    A DNA fragment (doubel strand) was heated at 9500C for 1-2 minutes so it will separate into single chain (single strand).
  • Annealing : Then do annealing (annealing) at a temperature of 550C for 1-2 minutes, the oligonucleotide primer attached to the template DNA sequences complementary to the primer.
  • Amplification : After the settlement, the temperature was raised to 7200C for 1.5 minutes. At this temperature, the DNA polymerase enzyme will do the process polymerase, the DNA chain that will form a hydrogen bridge with the template DNA. This process is called amplification (amplified/copied several times)
Reactions such as above can be repeated up to 25-30 times (cycle) thus obtained DNA molecules into new double chain.

The number of amplification depends on the concentration of the target DNA to be used.

How to detect the PCR product

The product of a PCR should be a fragment or fragments of DNA in defined length.

Techniques to detect PCR product reviews they are :
  • Agarose gel and/or polyacrylamide gel  electrophoresis
  • Restriction endonuclease digestion
  • Dot blots
  • High-pressure liquid chromatography
  • Electrochemiluminescence
  • Direct sequencing
The simplest and commonly used technique is electrophoresis of the PCR product on an agarose gel with EtBr (ethidium bromide).

EtBr is a fluorescent dye that intercalates into the DNA.

Size markers can be electrophoresed on the gel to allow size determination of the PCR product.

Application of PCR
  • Detection of DNA or RNA, and viruses are difficult to detect, such as HIV
  • Detection of genital human papilloma virus
  • Testing the quality of drinking water
  • Determination of nucleotide sequence
  • Knowing an alliance between species or to find out where the species come.
  • Keep track of one's origin by comparing the "finger print“
  • The diagnosis of genetic disorders before birth
  • Forecasting hemophilia
  • Isolation of DNA from mushroom mycelium and spores
By : Group 3
  • Poppy Dwita
  • Sodaya Ummi
  • Lisa Julia
  • Shulhan Zalil Aliju

14 July 2017

Benefits, Side Effect, Overcome From Rattan, Latex, Honey, Pine

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb
Benefits, Side Effect, Overcome From Rattan, Latex, Honey, Pine

Benefits :
  • Furniture
  • Manufacture of weapon
  • Buds of rattan as a cooking spice
  • Making sepak takraw ball
  • Craft
  • For traditional medicine
Side Effect :
  • Lost of biodiversity and natural resources
  • Lost of nature and can’t be rehabilitated again
Overcome :
  • Identification and inventory of potential rattan
  • To disseminate to the public about the benefits of rattan
  • Protecting forests growing up the rattan
  • Establish a specific area to manage the rattan

Benefits :
  • For furniture
  • Craft
  • For traditional medicine
  • Making tires
  • For food
Side Effect :
  • Lost of biodiversity and natural resources
  • Lost of nature and can’t be rehabilitated again
Overcome :
  • Identification and inventory of potential latex
  • To disseminate to the public about the benefits of latex
  • Protecting forests growing up the latex
  • Establish a specific area to manage the latex

Benefits :
  • For medicine
  • For facial
  • For food
  • For pregnant
Side Effect :
  • Lost of biodiversity and natural resources
  • Lost of nature and can’t be rehabilitated again
Overcome :
  • Identification and inventory of potential honey
  • To disseminate to the public about the benefits of honey
  • Protecting forests growing up the honey
  • Establish a specific area to manage the honey

Benefits :
  • For furniture
  • For craft
  • For medicine
  • Making paper
  • For construction
  • Pine resin can be processed into paint thinners
Side Effect :
  • Lost of biodiversity and natural resources
  • Lost of nature and can’t be rehabilitated again
Overcome :
  • Identification and inventory of potential pine
  • To disseminate to the public about the benefits of pine
  • Protecting forests growing up the pine
  • Establish a specific area to manage the pine

17 June 2017

Klasifikasi, Siklus Hidup, dan Penyebab Penyakit dari Balantidium coli

Assalamualaikum wr wb
  • Sub Kingdom : Protozoa
  • Filum : Sarcomastigophora
  • Sub filum : Sarcodina
  • Kelas : Kinetofragminophorasida
  • Ordo : Trichostomatorida
  • Famili : Balantidiidae
  • Genus : Balantidium
  • Spesies : Balantidum coli
Siklus Hidup

Balantidium coli seperti yang terlihat di sebuah gunung basah dari contoh kotoran.Organisme yang dikelilingi oleh bulu mata.

Stadium kista dan tropozoit dapat berlangsung di dalam satu jenis hospes. Hospes alamiah adalah babi, dan manusia merupakan  hospes insidentil.

Jika kista infektif tertelan di dalam usus besar akan berubah menjadi bentuk tropozoit. Di lumen usus atau dalam submukosa usus, tropozoit tumbuh dan memperbanyak diri (multiplikasi).

Jika lingkungan usus kurang sesuai bagi tropozoit akan berubah menjadi kista.

Stadium kista parasit yang bertanggung jawab dalam proses penularan balantidiasis. Umumnya kista tertelan melalui kontaminasi pada makanan dan air.

Setelah tertelan, terjadi excystation pada usus halus, dan tropozoit berkoloni di usus besar Tropozoit dalam lumen usus besar binatang dan manusia, dimana memperbanyak diri dengan cara pembelahan binary fission.

Tropozoit menjadi kista infektif.  Beberapa tropozoit menginvasi ke dinding usus besar dan berkembang, beberapa kembali ke lumen dan memisahkan diri.  Kista matang keluar bersama tinja.

Penyebab Penyakit

Mukosa dan submukosa usus diinvasi dan dirusak oleh jasad yang memperbanyak diri. Invasi berhasil dengan bantuan fermen-fermen sitolitik dan penerobosan secara mekanik.

Parasit memperbanyak diri dengan membentuk sarang dan abses kecil yang kemudian pecah menjadi ulkus yang lonjong dan tidak teratur dengan pinggiran merah yang menggaung.

Dengan kelainan mulai dari hiperemi cataral yang sederhana sampai pada ulkus yang jelas.

Masing-masing tukak mungkin terpisah dengan mukosa yang normal atau hiperemik di antaranya atau ulkus-ulkus itu menjadi satu dengan sinus-sinus yang saling berhubungan.

Pada semua kasus berakibat fatal terdapat ulkus multipel dan difus dan terdapat gangren.

Sediaan histologik menunjukkan daerah-daerah hemoragik, infiltrasi sel bulat, abses, ulkus nekrotik, dan terdapat invasi parasit, reaksi utama ialah sel inti satu yang menyolok kecuali bila ada infeksi bakteri yang sekunder.

Pada waktu eksaserbasi pada infeksi yang kronis terdapat ulkus-ulkus kecil dan tidak jelas.

Mukosa mengalami peradangan merata dan mungkin terdapat daerah-daerah kecil yang diliputi suatu membran dan di bawahnya ada jaringan yang terkelupas.

Pada infeksi sedang yang akut mungkin terdapat tinja yang encer sebanyak 6 - 15 x sehari dengan lendir, darah dan nanah.

Pada keadaan kronis mungkin terdapat diare yang timbul-hilang diselingi oleh konstipasi, nyeri pada colon, anemi dan cachexia.

Banyak infeksi berjalan tanpa gejala, dan prognosis tergantung pada hebatnya infeksi dan reaksi terhadap terapi.

Prognosis baik pada infeksi tanpa gejala dan pada infeksi kronis. Balantidiasis tidak berhasil menyerbu hati.

Jumlah infeksi yang kecil dan kegagalan untuk menimbulkan infeksi secara eksperimen, menunjukkan kekebalan bawaan yang tinggi pada manusia.

Wassalamualaikum wr wb

*Sumber : Nitya Wita Utama

Pembuktian 8 bit data dengan SEC 4 bit, 16 bit dengan SEC 5 bit, 32 bit dengan SEC 6 bit, dan 64 bit dengan SEC 7 bit

Assalamualaikum wr wb

Pembuktian 8 bit data dan SEC 4 bit
Rumus :
  • C1 = D1 ⊕ D2 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D5 ⊕ D7
  • C2 = D1 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7
  • C4 = D2 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D8
  • C8 = D5 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D8
Pembuktian 16 bit dengan SEC = 5 bit
Rumus :
  • C1   = D1 ⊕ D2 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D5 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D12 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D16
  • C2   = D1 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D13 ⊕ D14
  • C4   = D2 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D8 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D15 ⊕ D16
  • C8   = D5 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D8 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11
  • C16 = D12 ⊕ D13 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D15 ⊕ D16
Pembuktian 32 bit dengan SEC = 6 bit
Rumus :
  • C1 = D1 ⊕ D2 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D5 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D12 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D16 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D20 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D26 ⊕ D27 ⊕ D29 ⊕ D31
  • C2 = D1 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D13 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D17 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D21 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D26 ⊕ D28 ⊕ D29 ⊕ D32
  • C4 = D2 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D8 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D15 ⊕ D16 ⊕ D17 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D23 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D30 ⊕ D31 ⊕ D32
  • C8 = D5 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D8 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D12 ⊕ D19 ⊕ D20 ⊕ D21 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D23 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D26
  • C16 = D12 ⊕ D13 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D15 ⊕ D16 ⊕ D17 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D19 ⊕ D20 ⊕ D21 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D23 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D26
  • C32 = D27 ⊕ D28 ⊕ D29 ⊕ D30 ⊕ D31 ⊕ D32
Pembuktian 64 bit dengan SEC = 7 bit
Rumus :
  • C1 = D1 ⊕ D2 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D5 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D12 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D16 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D20 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D26 ⊕ D27 ⊕ D29 ⊕ D31 ⊕ D33 ⊕ D35 ⊕ D37 ⊕ D39 ⊕ D41 ⊕ D43 ⊕ D45 ⊕ D47 ⊕ D49 ⊕ D51 ⊕ D53 ⊕ D55 ⊕ D57 ⊕ D58 ⊕ D60 ⊕ D62 ⊕ D64
  • C2 = D1 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D13 ⊕ D14⊕ D17 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D21 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D26 ⊕ D28 ⊕ D29 ⊕ D32 ⊕ D33 ⊕ D36 ⊕ D37 ⊕ D40 ⊕ D41 ⊕ D44 ⊕ D45 ⊕ D48 ⊕ D49 ⊕ D52 ⊕ D53 ⊕ D56 ⊕ D57 ⊕ D59 ⊕ D60 ⊕ D63 ⊕ D64
  • C4 = D2 ⊕ D3 ⊕ D4 ⊕ D8 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D15 ⊕ D16 ⊕ D17 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D23 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D30 ⊕ D31 ⊕ D32 ⊕ D33 ⊕ D38 ⊕ D39 ⊕ D40 ⊕ D41 ⊕ D46 ⊕ D47 ⊕ D48 ⊕ D49 ⊕ D54 ⊕ D55 ⊕ D56 ⊕ D57 ⊕ D61 ⊕ D62 ⊕ D63 ⊕ D64
  • C8 = D5 ⊕ D6 ⊕ D7 ⊕ D8 ⊕ D9 ⊕ D10 ⊕ D11 ⊕ D12 ⊕ D19 ⊕ D20 ⊕ D21 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D23 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D26 ⊕ D34 ⊕ D35 ⊕ D36 ⊕ D38 ⊕ D39 ⊕ D40 ⊕ D41 ⊕ D50 ⊕ D51 ⊕ D52 ⊕ D53 ⊕ D54 ⊕ D56 ⊕ D57 ⊕
  • C16 = D12 ⊕ D13 ⊕ D14 ⊕ D15 ⊕ D16 ⊕ D17 ⊕ D18 ⊕ D19 ⊕ D20 ⊕ D21 ⊕ D22 ⊕ D23 ⊕ D24 ⊕ D25 ⊕ D26 ⊕ D42 ⊕ D43 ⊕ D45 ⊕ D46 ⊕ D47 ⊕ D46 ⊕ D48 ⊕ D49 ⊕ D50 ⊕ D51 ⊕ D52 ⊕ D53 ⊕ D54 ⊕ D56 ⊕ D57
  • C32 = D27 ⊕ D28 ⊕ D29 ⊕ D30 ⊕ D31 ⊕ D32 ⊕ D33 ⊕ D34 ⊕ D35 ⊕ D36 ⊕ D37 ⊕ D38 ⊕ D39 ⊕ D40 ⊕ D41 ⊕ D42 ⊕ D43 ⊕ D44 ⊕ D55 ⊕ D56 ⊕ D57
  • C64 = D58 ⊕ D59 ⊕ D60 ⊕ D61 ⊕ D62 ⊕ D63 ⊕ D64
Wassalamualaikum wr wb

15 June 2017

Soal Pilihan Ganda Teknologi Semi Solid - Kelompok Larutan

Nama : Witri Utaminingsih
NIM : 12334126
Lazada Indonesia 1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan kelarutan :
  • Jumlah terlarutnya 1 bagian bobot zat padat atau 1 bagian volume zat cair dalam volume tertentu pelarut pada suhu 20˚C
  • Jumlah terlarutnya 1 bagian bobot zat padat atau 1 bagian volume zat cair dalam volume tertentu pelarut pada suhu 30˚C
  • Jumlah terlarutnya 10 bagian bobot zat padat atau 10 bagian volume zat cair dalam volume tertentu pelarut pada suhu 20˚C
  • Jumlah terlarutnya 1 g zat padat atau 1 ml zat cair dalam sejumlah ml pelarut
  • Jumlah terlarutnya 1 bagian bobot zat padat atau 1 bagian volume zat cair dalam pelarut
2. 1 gram zat padat atau 1 ml zat cair dalam sejumlah ml pelarut adalah pengertian dari :
  • Bagian dalam kelarutan
  • Kelarutan
  • Zat terlarut
  • Pelarut
  • Larutan
3. Tingtur adalah...
  • Larutan mengandung air yang terdapat bahan tumbuhan
  • Larutan yang mengandung ekstrak tumbuhan
  • Larutan mengandung etanol atau hidroalkohol dibuat dari bahan tumbuhan atau senyawa kimia
  • Larutan yang mengandung bahan – bahan alam
  • Larutan mengandung ekstrak bahan – bahan alam
4. Pernyataan di bawah ini adalah pengertian dari Larutan Otik :
  • Larutan yang mengandung air atau gliserin
  • Larutan steril yang digunakan secara topikal
  • Larutan yang mengandung alkohol
  • Larutan yang mengandung air atau gliserin atau pelarut lain dan bahan pendispesi untuk penggunaan dalam telinga luar
  • Larutan steril bebas partikel asing
Nama : Wildan Pratama
NIM : 14334002

5. Sediaan cair yang mengandung satu atau lebih zat kimia yang terlarut adalah definisi dari :
  • Larutan
  • Emulsi
  • Suspensi 
  • Pasta
  • Cream
6. Lotio adalah :
  • Larutan yang mengandung air atau gliserin atau pelarut lain dan zat pendispersi.
  • Larutan atau suspensi yang ditujukan untuk pemakaian luar.
  • Larutan oral yang mengandung etanol (95%) sebagai konsolven.
  • Cairan agak kental yang pemakaian nya disapukan di bibir.
  • Larutan kental
7. Kerugian dari sediaan larutan adalah :
  • Kerja awal obat cepat karena cepat absorbsi
  • Dosis dapat di ubah-ubah dalam pembuatan
  • Ada obat yang tidak stabil dalam larutan
  • Untuk pemakaian luar mudah digunakan
  • Rasa tidak enak
Nama : Riski Dwi Amalia
NIM : 14334019

8. Zat tambahan yang di gunakan dalam sediaan larutan meliputi :
  • Na-CMC, Silikon dioksida
  • Derivat selulosa, Clays, Veegum
  • Propilen glikol, Surfaktan, Bentonit
  • Colouring, Pengawet, Flavouring
  • Gliserin, Alkohol, Metilselulosa
9. Apa saja yang dibutuhkan dalam proses produksi sediaan larutan :
  • Rheologis, Ukuran partikel, Volume sedimentasi
  • Kualitas bahan, Formulasi dan CPOB
  • Uji suhu didih, Kandungan air, Uji kebocoran
  • Keseragaman Sediaan, Kinerja pengukuran
  • Uji tekanan, Keseragaman kandungan
10. Yang terdiri dari stabilitas sediaan akhir sediaan larutan :
  • pH stabil dan inkompatibilitas
  • Hidrotopi , kompleksi dan ko-solvensi
  • Pengompleks , Antioksidan dan pengawet
  • Pendapar , Ukuran partikel zat padat dan coloring
  • Warna , Bau , Rasa dan Viskositas
Nama : Anggun Octavianingtyas
NIM : 14334051

11. Berkurangnya kelarutan zat utama karena adanya zat terlarut tertentu disebut...
  • Salting in
  • Salting out
  • Salting on
  • Cosolvensi
  • Kompleksasi
12. Luminal tidak larut dalam air, tetapi larut dalam solutio petit, disebut...
  • Kompleksasi
  • Saliting on
  • Salting in
  • Salting out
  • Cosolvensi
13. Larutan obat yang dibuat dengan mereaksikan asam dan basa, dimana CO2 yang terbentuk ditahan sebagian sampai larutan jenuh, disebut ....
  • Potio nigra
  • Potio netralisasi
  • Potio saturasi
  • Potio effervescent
  • Gargarisma
Nama : Rizki Nugraha
NIM : 14334052

14. Zat pelarut disebut...
  • Solvent
  • Solute
  • Solute agent
  • Suspending agent
  • Solutio
15. Fungsi etanol dalam elixir adalah...
  • Sebagai solute
  • Sebagai zat aktif
  • Menurunkan kelarutan obat
  • Mempertinggi kelarutan obat
  • Sebagai solvent
Nama : Aditiya Eka Juniardi
NIM : 14334052

16. Contoh surfaktan dari bahan alam adalah...
  • Gom acasia
  • Tragakan
  • CMC Na
  • A dan B benar
  • A dan C benar
17. Zat dikatakan sukar larut yaitu antara...
  • < 1
  • 1 – 10
  • 10 – 30
  • 30 – 100
  • 100 – 1000
18. Kadar sukrosa pada sirup simplex adalah...
  • 65 %
  • 50 %
  • 80 %
  • 40 %
  • 30 %
NIM : 14334033

19. Adanya zat terlarut tertentu yang menyebabkan kelarutan zat utama dalam solvent menjadi lebih besar, merupakan pengertian dari...
  • Salting Out
  • Salting In
  • Deflokulasi
  • Emulsi
  • Osmosis
20. Yang merupakan faktor yang mempengaruhi Kelarutan antara lain, Kecuali ...
  • Suhu
  • Pengaruh Hidrolisis
  • Konsentrasi
  • Pengaruh Lingkungan
  • Sifat pelarut
Nama : Prayogo Pangestu
NIM : 14334013

21. Keuntungan dalam membuat sediaan larutan adalah, kecuali...
  • Mudah ditelan
  • Cepat diabsorpsi
  • Menutupi rasa pahiT
  • Stabilitas rendah
  • Mudah diberikan dalam dosis  demikian
22. Suatu zat yg digunakan untuk menambah masa kelarutan disebut...
  • Colouring
  • Konsolven
  • Flavoring
  • Pengawet
  • Pemanis
Nama : Reza Achmad
NIM : 13334067

23. Larutan yang mengandung solute (zat terlarut) kurang dari yang diperlukan untuk membuat larutan jenuh disebut :
  • Larutan tak jenuh
  • Larutan jenuh
  • Larutan sangat jenuh
  • Larutan amat sangat jenuh
  • Larutan sukar jenuh
24. Kelarutan zat cair dalam zat cair sering dinyatakan “Like dissolver like” maknanya zat – zat cair yang memiliki struktur serupa akan saling melarutkan satu sama lain, seperti contoh dibawah, kecuali :
  • Heksana dengan pentana
  • Air dengan alkohol
  • H-OH dengan C2H5-OH
  • CH3CL dengan alkohol
  • Air dan minyak
25. Dibawah ini yang termasuk ke dalam golongan elektrolit kuat adalah :
  • HCL, H2SO4, HNO3
  • NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
  • NaCl, KI, Al2SO4
  • NaOH, NaCl, NaNO3
Nama : Bayu Kusumo Jati
NIM : 14334037

26. Sediaan obat yang mengandung bahan obat padat dalam bentuk halus dan tidak larut, terdispersi dalam cairan pambawa adalah pengertian dari …
  • Suspensi
  • Emulsi
  • Elixir
  • Salep
  • Cream
27. Sirup adalah sediaan cair berupa larutan yang mengandung sakarosa. Kadar sakarosa tidak kurang dari…… dan tidak lebih dari…..
  • Tidak kurang dari 35% dan tidak lebih dari 45%
  • Tidak kurang dari 38% dan tidak lebih dari 55%
  • Tidak kurang dari 64,0% dan tidak lebih dari 66,9%
  • Tidak kurang dari 37% dan tidak lebih dari 41%
  • Tidak kurang dari 47% dan tidak lebih dari 80%
28. Sediaan cair yang dibuat dengan cara maserasi atau perkolasi simplisia nabati atau hewani dengan cara melarutkan senyawa kimia dalam pelarut adalah…
  • Injeksi
  • Tingtur
  • Suspensi
  • Aerosol
  • Emulsi
Nama : Desi
NIM : -

29. Larutan jernih dan jenuh dalam air dari minyak mudah menguap adalah pengertian dari :
  • Air wangi
  • Tingtur
  • Sediaan galenik
  • Air aromatik
  • Lotio
Nama : Asteria

30. Syarat dari larutan optalmik adalah...
  • Larutan steril, bebas partikel asing
  • Larutan enak dilihat
  • Larutan mengandung satu atau lebih zat aktif
  • Larutan mengandung air
  • Larutan mengandung etanol
Wassalamualaikum wr wb

*Sumber : Nitya Wita Utama

28 May 2017

Pengertian dan Faktor Hukum Diplomatik dan Konsuler

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb
Pengertian dan Faktor Hukum Diplomatik dan Konsuler
Istilah Diplomatik :
  1. Politik  Luar Negeri
  2. Perundingn
  3. Dinas Luar Negeri
  4. Bersilat Lidah
Pengertian Hukum Diplomatik :

Hukum diplomatik merupakan ketentuan atau prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional yang mengatur hubungan diplomatik antar negara yang dilakukan atas dasar permufakatan bersama dan ketentuan atau prinsip-prinsip tersebut dituangkan di dalam instrumen-instrumen hukum sebagai hasil dari kodifikasi hukum kebiasaan internasional dan pengembangan kemajuan hukum internasional.

Faktor yang melatar belakangi lahirnya Hukum Diplomatik :
  • Hubungan antar bangsa untuk merintis kerjasama dan persahabatan.
  • Hubungan tersebut dilakukan melalui pertukaran misi diplomatik termasuk para pejabatnya.
  • Para pejabat tersebut harus diakui statusnya sebagai pejabat diplomatik.
  • Para pejabat tersebut diberi hak-hak keistimewaan dan kekebalan berdasarkan aturan kebiasaan hukum internasional.
Dalam perkembangannya, hukum diplomatik mempunyai lingkup yang lebih luas lagi bukan saja mencakupi hubungan diplomatik antar negara.

Tetapi juga hubungan konsuler dan keterwakilan negara dalam hubungannya dengan organisasi internasional khususnya yang mempunyai tanggung jawab dan keanggotaannya yang bersifat global.

Bahkan dalam kerangka hukum diplomatik ini dapat juga mencakup ketentuan tentang perlindungan, keselamatan, pencegahan serta penghukuman terhadap tindak kejahatan yang ditujukan kepada para diplomat.

Wassalamualaikum Wr Wb

*Sumber : Slide PPT Dari Timbul Aman S. SH